Spring对于Bean的依赖注入,支持多种注解方式:

直观上看起来,@Autowired是Spring提供的注解,其他几个都是JDK本身内建的注解,Spring对这些注解也进行了支持。但是使用起来这三者到底有什么区别呢?笔者经过方法的测试,发现一些有意思的特性。

区别总结如下:

一、@Autowired有个required属性,可以配置为false,这种情况下如果没有找到对应的bean是不会抛异常的。@Inject和@Resource没有提供对应的配置,所以必须找到否则会抛异常。

二、 @Autowired和@Inject基本是一样的,因为两者都是使用AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor来处理依赖注入。但是@Resource是个例外,它使用的是CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor来处理依赖注入。当然,两者都是BeanPostProcessor。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
@Autowired和@Inject
- 默认 autowired by type
- 可以 通过@Qualifier 显式指定 autowired by qualifier name。
- 如果 autowired by type 失败(找不到或者找到多个实现),则退化为autowired by field name

@Resource
- 默认 autowired by field name
- 如果 autowired by field name失败,会退化为 autowired by type
- 可以 通过@Qualifier 显式指定 autowired by qualifier name
- 如果 autowired by qualifier name失败,会退化为 autowired by field name。但是这时候如果 autowired by field name失败,就不会再退化为autowired by type了。

TIPS Qualified name VS Bean name

在Spring设计中,Qualified name并不等同于Bean name,后者必须是唯一的,但是前者类似于tag或者group的作用,对特定的bean进行分类。可以达到getByTag(group)的效果。对于XML配置的bean,可以通过id属性指定bean name(如果没有指定,默认使用类名首字母小写),通过标签指定qualifier name:

1
2
3
4
<bean id="lamborghini" class="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Lamborghini">
<qualifier value="luxury"/>
<!-- inject any dependencies required by this bean -->
</bean>

如果是通过注解方式,那么可以通过@Qualifier注解指定qualifier name,通过@Named或者@Component(@Service,@Repository等)的value值指定bean name:

或者

同样,如果没有指定bean name,那么Spring会默认是用类名首字母小写(Lamborghini=>lamborghini)。

三、 通过Anotation注入依赖的方式在XML注入方式之前进行。如果对同一个bean的依赖同时使用了两种注入方式,那么XML的优先。但是不同担心通过Anotation注入的依赖没法注入XML中配置的bean,依赖注入是在bean的注册之后进行的。

四、目前的autowired by type方式(笔者用的是3.2.3.RELEASE版本),Spring的AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor实现都是有”bug”的,也就是说@Autowired和@Inject都是有坑的(称之为坑,不称之为bug是因为貌似是故意的。。)。这是来源于线上的一个bug,也是这边文章的写作原因。现场如下:

application-context.xml中有如下定义:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
xsi:schemaLocation="
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-3.0.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.0.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/util http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-2.5.xsd">

<context:annotation-config />

<context:component-scan base-package="me.arganzheng.study" />

<util:constant id="en"
static-field="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Constants.Language.EN" />
<util:constant id="ja"
static-field="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Constants.Language.JP" />
<util:constant id="ind"
static-field="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Constants.Language.IND" />
<util:constant id="pt"
static-field="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Constants.Language.PT" />
<util:constant id="th"
static-field="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Constants.Language.TH" />
<util:constant id="ar"
static-field="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Constants.Language.AR" />
<util:constant id="en-rIn"
static-field="me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Constants.Language.EN_RIN" />

<util:map id="languageChangesMap" key-type="java.lang.String"
value-type="java.lang.String">
<entry key="pt" value="pt" />
<entry key="br" value="pt" />
<entry key="jp" value="ja" />
<entry key="ja" value="ja" />
<entry key="ind" value="ind" />
<entry key="id" value="ind" />
<entry key="en-rin" value="en-rIn" />
<entry key="in" value="en-rIn" />
<entry key="en" value="en" />
<entry key="gb" value="en" />
<entry key="th" value="th" />
<entry key="ar" value="ar" />
<entry key="eg" value="ar" />
</util:map>

</beans>

其中static-field应用的常量定义在如下类中:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
package me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired;

public interface Constants {

public interface Language {
public static final String EN = "CommonConstants.LANG_ENGLISH";
public static final String JP = "CommonConstants.LANG_JAPANESE";
public static final String IND = "CommonConstants.LANG_INDONESIAN";
public static final String PT = "CommonConstants.LANG_PORTUGUESE";
public static final String TH = "CommonConstants.LANG_THAI";
public static final String EN_RIN = "CommonConstants.LANG_ENGLISH_INDIA";
public static final String AR = "CommonConstants.LANG_Arabic";
}
}

然后如果我们在代码中如下声明依赖:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
public class AutowiredTest extends BaseSpringTestCase {

@Autowired
private Map<String, String> languageChangesMap;

@Test
public void testAutowired() {
notNull(languageChangesMap);
System.out.println(languageChangesMap.getClass().getSimpleName());
System.out.println(languageChangesMap);
}
}

Guess what,诡异的事情发生了!

运行结果如下:

1
2
LinkedHashMap
{en=CommonConstants.LANG_ENGLISH, ja=CommonConstants.LANG_JAPANESE, ind=CommonConstants.LANG_INDONESIAN, pt=CommonConstants.LANG_PORTUGUESE, th=CommonConstants.LANG_THAI, ar=CommonConstants.LANG_Arabic, en-rIn=CommonConstants.LANG_ENGLISH_INDIA}

也就是说Map

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
严重: Caught exception while allowing TestExecutionListener [org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener@5c51ee0a] to prepare test instance [me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.AutowiredTest@6e301e0]
org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.AutowiredTest': Injection of autowired dependencies failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire field: private java.util.Map me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.AutowiredTest.languageChangesMap; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type [java.lang.String] found for dependency [map with value type java.lang.String]: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate for this dependency. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)}
...
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type [java.lang.String] found for dependency [map with value type java.lang.String]: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate for this dependency. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)}
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:986)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.doResolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:843)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:768)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:486)
... 28 more

debug了一下,发现确实是Spring的一个bug。在DefaultListableBeanFactory的这个方法出问题了:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
protected Object doResolveDependency(DependencyDescriptor descriptor, Class<?> type, String beanName,
Set<String> autowiredBeanNames, TypeConverter typeConverter) throws BeansException {
...

else if (Map.class.isAssignableFrom(type) && type.isInterface()) {
Class<?> keyType = descriptor.getMapKeyType();
if (keyType == null || !String.class.isAssignableFrom(keyType)) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
throw new FatalBeanException("Key type [" + keyType + "] of map [" + type.getName() +
"] must be assignable to [java.lang.String]");
}
return null;
}
Class<?> valueType = descriptor.getMapValueType();
if (valueType == null) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
throw new FatalBeanException("No value type declared for map [" + type.getName() + "]");
}
return null;
}
Map<String, Object> matchingBeans = findAutowireCandidates(beanName, valueType, descriptor);
if (matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(valueType, "map with value type " + valueType.getName(), descriptor);
}
return null;
}
if (autowiredBeanNames != null) {
autowiredBeanNames.addAll(matchingBeans.keySet());
}
return matchingBeans;
}
...
}

关键在这一句:Map

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
严重: Caught exception while allowing TestExecutionListener [org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener@9476189] to prepare test instance [me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.AutowiredTest@2d546e21]
...
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type [java.lang.String] found for dependency [map with value type java.lang.String]: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate for this dependency. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true), @org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Qualifier(value=languageChangesMap)}
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:986)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.doResolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:843)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:768)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:486)
... 28 more

debug了一下,发现跟没有指定qualifie name是一样的执行路径。不是指定了bean name了吗?为什么还是autowired by type呢?仔细查看了一下才发现。DefaultListableBeanFactory的doResolveDependency方法对首先对类型做了区别:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
protected Object doResolveDependency(DependencyDescriptor descriptor, Class<?> type, String beanName,
Set<String> autowiredBeanNames, TypeConverter typeConverter) throws BeansException {

Object value = getAutowireCandidateResolver().getSuggestedValue(descriptor);
if (value != null) {
if (value instanceof String) {
String strVal = resolveEmbeddedValue((String) value);
BeanDefinition bd = (beanName != null && containsBean(beanName) ? getMergedBeanDefinition(beanName) : null);
value = evaluateBeanDefinitionString(strVal, bd);
}
TypeConverter converter = (typeConverter != null ? typeConverter : getTypeConverter());
return (descriptor.getField() != null ?
converter.convertIfNecessary(value, type, descriptor.getField()) :
converter.convertIfNecessary(value, type, descriptor.getMethodParameter()));
}

if (type.isArray()) {
Class<?> componentType = type.getComponentType();
Map<String, Object> matchingBeans = findAutowireCandidates(beanName, componentType, descriptor);
if (matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(componentType, "array of " + componentType.getName(), descriptor);
}
return null;
}
if (autowiredBeanNames != null) {
autowiredBeanNames.addAll(matchingBeans.keySet());
}
TypeConverter converter = (typeConverter != null ? typeConverter : getTypeConverter());
return converter.convertIfNecessary(matchingBeans.values(), type);
}
else if (Collection.class.isAssignableFrom(type) && type.isInterface()) {
Class<?> elementType = descriptor.getCollectionType();
if (elementType == null) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
throw new FatalBeanException("No element type declared for collection [" + type.getName() + "]");
}
return null;
}
Map<String, Object> matchingBeans = findAutowireCandidates(beanName, elementType, descriptor);
if (matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(elementType, "collection of " + elementType.getName(), descriptor);
}
return null;
}
if (autowiredBeanNames != null) {
autowiredBeanNames.addAll(matchingBeans.keySet());
}
TypeConverter converter = (typeConverter != null ? typeConverter : getTypeConverter());
return converter.convertIfNecessary(matchingBeans.values(), type);
}
else if (Map.class.isAssignableFrom(type) && type.isInterface()) {
Class<?> keyType = descriptor.getMapKeyType();
if (keyType == null || !String.class.isAssignableFrom(keyType)) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
throw new FatalBeanException("Key type [" + keyType + "] of map [" + type.getName() +
"] must be assignable to [java.lang.String]");
}
return null;
}
Class<?> valueType = descriptor.getMapValueType();
if (valueType == null) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
throw new FatalBeanException("No value type declared for map [" + type.getName() + "]");
}
return null;
}
Map<String, Object> matchingBeans = findAutowireCandidates(beanName, valueType, descriptor);
if (matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(valueType, "map with value type " + valueType.getName(), descriptor);
}
return null;
}
if (autowiredBeanNames != null) {
autowiredBeanNames.addAll(matchingBeans.keySet());
}
return matchingBeans;
}
else {
Map<String, Object> matchingBeans = findAutowireCandidates(beanName, type, descriptor);
if (matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
if (descriptor.isRequired()) {
raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(type, "", descriptor);
}
return null;
}
if (matchingBeans.size() > 1) {
String primaryBeanName = determinePrimaryCandidate(matchingBeans, descriptor);
if (primaryBeanName == null) {
throw new NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException(type, matchingBeans.keySet());
}
if (autowiredBeanNames != null) {
autowiredBeanNames.add(primaryBeanName);
}
return matchingBeans.get(primaryBeanName);
}
// We have exactly one match.
Map.Entry<String, Object> entry = matchingBeans.entrySet().iterator().next();
if (autowiredBeanNames != null) {
autowiredBeanNames.add(entry.getKey());
}
return entry.getValue();
}
}

如果是Array,Collection或者Map,则根据集合类中元素的类型来进行autowired by type(Map使用value的类型)。为什么这么特殊处理呢?原来,Spring是为了达到这样的目的:让你可以一次注入所有符合类型的实现,也就是说可以这样子注入:

1
2
@Autowired
private List<Car> cars;

如果你的car有多个实现,那么都会注入进来,不会再报

1
2
3
org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException:
No unique bean of type [me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Car] is defined:
expected single matching bean but found 2: [audi, toyota].

然而,上面的情况如果你用@Resource则不会有这个问题:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
public class AutowiredTest extends BaseSpringTestCase {

@Resource
@Qualifier("languageChangesMap")
private Map<String, String> languageChangesMap;

@Test
public void testAutowired() {
assertNotNull(languageChangesMap);
System.out.println(languageChangesMap.getClass().getSimpleName());
System.out.println(languageChangesMap);
}

正常运行:

1
2
LinkedHashMap
{pt=pt, br=pt, jp=ja, ja=ja, ind=ind, id=ind, en-rin=en-rIn, in=en-rIn, en=en, gb=en, th=th, ar=ar, eg=ar}

当然,你如果不指定@Qualifier(“languageChangesMap”),同时field name不是languageChangesMap,那么还是一样报错的。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type [java.lang.String] found for dependency [map with value type java.lang.String]: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate for this dependency. Dependency annotations: {@javax.annotation.Resource(shareable=true, mappedName=, description=, name=, type=class java.lang.Object, authenticationType=CONTAINER, lookup=)}
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.raiseNoSuchBeanDefinitionException(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:986)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.doResolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:843)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:768)
at org.springframework.context.annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.autowireResource(CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:438)
at org.springframework.context.annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.getResource(CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:416)
at org.springframework.context.annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$ResourceElement.getResourceToInject(CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:550)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata$InjectedElement.inject(InjectionMetadata.java:150)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.inject(InjectionMetadata.java:87)
at org.springframework.context.annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:303)
... 26 more

而且,@Resource也可以实现上面的List接收所有实现:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
public class AutowiredTest extends BaseSpringTestCase {

@Resource
@Qualifier("languageChangesMap")
private Map<String, String> languageChangesMap;

@Resource
private List<Car> cars;

@Test
public void testAutowired() {
assertNotNull(languageChangesMap);
System.out.println(languageChangesMap.getClass().getSimpleName());
System.out.println(languageChangesMap);

assertNotNull(cars);
System.out.println(cars.getClass().getSimpleName());
System.out.println(cars);
}
}

运行的妥妥的:

1
2
3
4
LinkedHashMap
{pt=pt, br=pt, jp=ja, ja=ja, ind=ind, id=ind, en-rin=en-rIn, in=en-rIn, en=en, gb=en, th=th, ar=ar, eg=ar}
ArrayList
[me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Audi@579584da, me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Toyota@19453122]

这是因为@Resource注解使用的是CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor处理器,跟AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor不是同一个作者[/偷笑]。这里就不分析了,感兴趣的同学可以自己看代码研究一下。

最终结论如下:

1、@Autowired和@Inject

1
2
autowired by type 可以 通过@Qualifier 显式指定 autowired by qualifier name(非集合类。注意:不是autowired by bean name!)
如果 autowired by type 失败(找不到或者找到多个实现),则退化为autowired by field name(非集合类)

2、@Resource

1
2
3
4
默认 autowired by field name
如果 autowired by field name失败,会退化为 autowired by type
可以 通过@Qualifier 显式指定 autowired by qualifier name
如果 autowired by qualifier name失败,会退化为 autowired by field name。但是这时候如果 autowired by field name失败,就不会再退化为autowired by type了

测试工程保存在GitHub上,是标准的maven工程,感兴趣的同学可以clone到本地运行测试一下。

补充

有同事指出Spring官方文档上有这么一句话跟我的结有点冲突:

1
However, although you can use this convention to refer to specific beans by name, @Autowired is fundamentally about type-driven injection with optional semantic qualifiers. This means that qualifier values, even with the bean name fallback, always have narrowing semantics within the set of type matches; they do not semantically express a reference to a unique bean id.

也就是说@Autowired即使加了@Qualifier注解,其实也是autowired by type。@Qualifier只是一个限定词,过滤条件而已。重新跟进了一下代码,发现确实是这样子的。Spring设计的这个 @Qualifier name 并不等同于 bean name。他有点类似于一个tag。不过如果这个tag是唯一的化,那么其实效果上等同于bean name。实现上,Spring是先getByType,得到list candicates,然后再根据qualifier name进行过滤。

再定义一个兰博基尼,这里使用@Qualifier指定:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
package me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Qualifier;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
@Qualifier("luxury")
public class Lamborghini implements Car {

}

再定义一个劳斯莱斯,这里故意用@Named指定:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
package me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired;

import javax.inject.Named;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
@Named("luxury")
public class RollsRoyce implements Car {

}

测试一下注入定义的豪华车:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
package me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired;

import static junit.framework.Assert.assertNotNull;

import java.util.List;

import me.arganzheng.study.BaseSpringTestCase;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Qualifier;

/**
*
* @author zhengzhibin
*
*/
public class AutowiredTest extends BaseSpringTestCase {

@Autowired
@Qualifier("luxury")
private List<Car> luxuryCars;

@Test
public void testAutowired() {

assertNotNull(luxuryCars);
System.out.println(luxuryCars.getClass().getSimpleName());
System.out.println(luxuryCars);
}

}

运行结果如下:

1
2
ArrayList
[me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.Lamborghini@66b875e1, me.arganzheng.study.spring.autowired.RollsRoyce@58433b76]

补充:Autowiring modes

Spring支持四种autowire模式,当使用XML配置方式时,你可以通过autowire属性指定。

1
2
3
4
no. (Default) No autowiring. Bean references must be defined via a ref element. Changing the default setting is not recommended for larger deployments, because specifying collaborators explicitly gives greater control and clarity. To some extent, it documents the structure of a system.
byName. Autowiring by property name. Spring looks for a bean with the same name as the property that needs to be autowired. For example, if a bean definition is set to autowire by name, and it contains a master property (that is, it has a setMaster(..) method), Spring looks for a bean definition named master, and uses it to set the property.
byType. Allows a property to be autowired if exactly one bean of the property type exists in the container. If more than one exists, a fatal exception is thrown, which indicates that you may not use byType autowiring for that bean. If there are no matching beans, nothing happens; the property is not set.
constructor. Analogous to byType, but applies to constructor arguments. If there is not exactly one bean of the constructor argument type in the container, a fatal error is raised.

如果使用@Autowired、@Inject或者@Resource注解的时候,则稍微复杂一些,会有一个失败退化过程,并且引入了Qualifier。不过基本原理是一样。

 

 

来自 码农网